Theory Model of Public Policy Implementation
Public policy is how the state will or will not act. However, studying the implementation of public policy into practice is extremely important. That is an understanding of the ability to push the operational mechanism that covers activities, individuals, or groups of people, both in the public or private sectors, resource usage, efforts to stimulate work organizational performance by doing concrete actions through plans, projects, and activities to achieve the objectives of public policy. The theoretical model of public policy implementation can be classified into three groups as follows; (1) The top-down theories of implementation are the model of the policy implementation process of Van Meter and Van Horn, the general model of the implementation process, and the political model. (2) The bottom-up theories of implementation are the bureaucratic process model of Lipsky, the backward mapping or bottom-up perspective model, and the model of a structure. And (3) the hybrid theories of implementation are the interactions between factor models, the model of decentralization program implementation process, the rational model, the management model, the organization development model, the policy program-implementation process: PPIP, the integrative model, and the integrated theory of public policy implementation.