Effective Science Teaching Approaches to Teaching STEM Career Orientation of Upper Secondary School Teachers: A Case Study in Vietnam
Teaching science subject at the upper secondary school is considered as the most important base to develop students' interest in science which is highly associated with their STEM career. This study investigated science teachers’ teaching approaches in Vietnamese upper secondary schools to examine which teaching approaches will actively support the teaching of STEM occupational orientation and recommend for science teachers using teaching approaches and teaching methods to promote the effectiveness of STEM-oriented teaching in their lectures. A survey questionnaire measuring four teaching approach’s effectiveness in teaching STEM career orientation was distributed to 235 science teachers at upper secondary schools in Hanoi and some northern provinces of Vietnam such as Nam Dinh, Vinh Phuc, Lao Cai, Hoa Binh province. The results indicated that teaching the “applications of science” (conveying the wider applications and/or relevance of science to students’ lives) and “hands-on/practical activities” were measured teaching approaches to consistently and positively associated with teachers’ teaching of STEM career orientation for upper secondary school students, accounting for other teaching approaches. Additionally, in this study, the “student-led investigation” negatively associated with teachers’ science-related career orientation teaching. The implication of the study is helpful for science teachers when they choose and use teaching approaches to promote the effectiveness of STEM-oriented teaching in their science lectures.