Simulation of Fire and Evacuation

Case study at Airport

  • เพชรมณี สุธางค์กรกุล Faculty of Engineering , Kasetsart University
  • เฉลิมพร เปล่งสะอาด
Keywords: Fire Evacuation Simulation, Fire Simulation, Extra-large building


The objectives of this research were to 1. Study the fire escape routes inside the terminal in accordance with the law. 2. Simulate fire evacuation situations compare with time and simulated burning fire and 3. Make recommendations for methods to improve fire evacuation routes. The important physical parameters such as total gas temperature, emission and visibility were investigated and compared with safety criteria. Three different evacuation situations were simulated in the study, for example, evacuation in the original terminal building, in the renovated terminal building by law, and in the renovated terminal building by law and NFPA101 Life Safety Code. The research was focused on the fire evacuation of terminal building, which were high-rise building and extra-large building with the most occupants have 2,461 people were done by pathfinder software. The results showed that the evacuation according to law and NFPA101 Life Safety Code was the fastest (257.2 seconds), followed by the evacuation according to law (780.2 seconds), and the last one was the evacuation from the original building (1,783.1 seconds). There was only one case for occupants evacuate to a safe point in less than 5 minutes as prescribed on the Ministerial Regulation of standard for administration and management of occupational safety health and environment in relation to fire prevention and control (B.E.2555). The pyrosim software was used to simulate the burning fire in terminal building and study that occupants may be harmed by a variety of factors. The results showed that occupants were at risk due to the high temperature near the fire within 246 seconds and visibility in the passenger hall decreased by less than 1 meter within 111 seconds. As a result, the occupant’s walking speed was less than 0.2 meters per second. Therefore, it has been enhanced by the installation of automatic sprinkler system. The temperature can be reduced up to 20 degrees Celsius and visibility was reduce to less than 1 meter within 185 seconds which increase the safety for occupants.