Teratogenic Effects of Metformin Hydrochloride

  • Kotchakorn Siripattanaphol
  • Thanaporn Rungruang
  • Vasana Plakornkul
  • Yadaridee Viravud
  • Jantima Roongruangchai
Keywords: Chick Embryo, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Metformin, Pregnancy, Teratogenesis


Metformin (MET), a natural product from Galega officinalis linn, has a biguanide component that can treat gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Due to some evidence suggested that MET could pass through the placenta causing embryo in risk. However, it was remained argument and had not adequate data for using control in the first trimester with PCOS pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of MET in induced teratogenesis on the development of 72-hours chick embryos. The white leghorn hen eggs were divided into 4 groups; a control group injected with 0.9% normal saline and treated groups 2, 3 and 4 injected into the yolk sac with 0.1 ml of MET of 3, 4 and 5 mg/ml concentrations, respectively. The embryos were stained with Mayer’s carmalum to determine of morphological observation. The results showed high mortality rate in all treated groups, especially in MET 4 mg/ml group (63.33% mortality) and 5 mg/ml group (58.62% mortality). The effects of MET displayed a delay in closure of anterior and posterior neuropores leading to form abnormalities brain and retard development of brain vesicle, eye, heart looping (U-shaped), branchial arches, somites and limb buds. In conclusion, the increasing MET concentration caused increasing the risk of mortality, retardation and malformations of early stage chick embryonic development. Hence, the importance of using MET to treat the first trimester pregnancy with diabetes should be considered as the standard of care.


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