• Oraphan Kalong
  • Vasana Plakornkul
  • Jantima Roongruangchai
  • Yadaridee Viravud
  • Kesorn Sripaoraya
Keywords: Chloroquine, teratogen, chick embryos


Chloroquine is used to prevent and treat malaria, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) due to its anti-inflammatory effect. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis requires long-term medication in all ages including pregnant women. Pregnant women with rheumatoid arthritis and on chloroquine medications may effect to the embryo or fetus. This study was conducted to study the teratogenic effects of chloroquine by using chick embryos as an animal model and compared to the comparing stage of human embryo. Fertilized white leghorn hen eggs were injected in ovo with three concentrations of chloroquine, which were 0.2g/ml, 0.4 g/ml and 0.6 g/ml in 0.9% NSS at equal volume of 0.1 ml to the yolk sac of 24 hours incubation before injection. After injection, they were further incubated until 72 hours. After that they were sacrificed and processed for total mount and serial section. The present study showed the mortality rate of different concentrations of chloroquine. The total mount of day 3 showed growth retardation and major abnormalities of the brain vesicle and eye such as retardation of brain vesicle. The serial section of day 3 showed growth retardation of eye development (wide intraretinal space), looser of heart looping and also atrium and bulbus cordis malformations. At 0.6 g/ml chloroquine has the most effects to the growth of day 3 of chick embryos.  In conclusion, chloroquine cause embryonic death and abnormalities in day 3 of chick embryos. Which the risk is indicated when chloroquine was used with higher doses than the recommended dose. Nevertheless, more extensive investigation showed be carried out in other animal models to confirm its teratogenicity.


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